The Two Nations Theory is a base of Pakistan


Asad Ullah

With the rise of Muslim nationalism in Hindu-dominated India, the “Two Nations Theory” emerged and persisted throughout the period. Both communities coexisted under the same rulers, but their integration was inconceivable. Even Mughal emperor Akbar’s attempt to unify Hindus and Muslims into a single nation had failed. The Muslims faced agony at the hands of Hindus and the British. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah rejected Nehru’s belief that there were only two forces in India, British imperialism and Indian nationalism represented by the Congress.

Jinnah reminded Nehru that there was another party, the “Muslim League,” which had the right to represent Indian Muslims. It has been mistakenly assumed that Muslims are a minority, but Jinnah argued that Muslims are a nation in their own right. Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions, philosophies, social customs, and literature, and they have conflicting ideas and conceptions. Therefore, they must have their own homeland, territory, and state.

Life is a sacred gift from God, and individuals and communities must adhere to certain codes, laws, and ideals. Pakistan’s ideology is rooted in Islamic ideology, which encompasses both the spiritual and material aspects of life. Pakistan is a state founded on an ideological basis, not territorial grounds. The Muslims of the subcontinent constitute a nation, and the two-nation theory gave rise to the distinct ideology of Pakistan. It is an ideological state with foundations based on Islamic teachings from the Quran and Sunnah. Hindus and Muslims belong to different cultures with conflicting ideas and concepts, deriving inspiration from different sources of history.

The freedom movement in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent must be understood in its proper historical context. Muslims entered India as conquerors from the west and northwest. The establishment of Muslim rule by Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 A.D. marked the beginning of Pakistan. Mahmud of Ghazni’s invasion in the 11th century integrated the lands that now constitute Pakistan under Muslim rule. Islamic culture flourished, and justice, tolerance, and prosperity prevailed wherever Islam was upheld. Muslim saints and rulers upheld the flag of Islam, and the Muslim empire ultimately declined. During the 18th century, cracks appeared in the Mughal Empire, and the Marathas threatened Hinduism’s rise. The Muslim rule diminished, and the British took advantage of the situation, ruling over India.The Muslims suffered under British and Hindu dominance. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Allama Muhammad Iqbal emerged as beacons of hope for the Muslims. They worked towards uplifting the Muslims of India and revitalizing their past glory. The revival movements led by these leaders allowed Muslims to voice their grievances and fight for their rights. Over time, Indian Muslims realized they could not coexist with Hindus due to their differing beliefs, cultures, traditions, and outlook on life. Muhammad Ali Jinnah embraced the idea of a separate Muslim state, Pakistan, and became its leader. Jinnah refused to accept Nehru’s belief that there were only two forces in India and emphasized the Muslim League’s right to represent Indian Muslims.

Jinnah recognized that the Hindu majority sought to dominate the Muslims and saw no desire for fair treatment. The British rule further demonstrated this, as the Muslim minority suffered under Hindu-majority rule. The Muslims, under the leadership of Jinnah and inspired by Urdu, their national language, stood firm under the Muslim League flag. Jinnah firmly believed that Hindus and Muslims could not live together, as Hinduism and Islam have distinct social codes and aspects of social life. In his historic speech at Lahore in 1940, Jinnah highlighted the differences between Hindus and Muslims and asserted that Muslims are a nation by any definition. He emphasized the need for a separate homeland and state for Muslims.

Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah stands alone as a figure who, through sheer determination and unwavering dedication, etched his name into the history of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Undoubtedly, his task was more arduous than that of any other freedom fighter. In a part of the world where colonial powers had long enslaved the populace, and where the Muslims had lost their fighting spirit, it was nothing short of a miracle that a leader single-handedly succeeded in instilling a sense of purpose in a dispirited mass of people.Within a short span of time, the Quaid transformed a demoralized, scattered multitude into a unified and determined force. Under his leadership, the Muslim nation had to confront three adversariesthe British, the Congress, and “quisling” Muslims. Such a remarkable and fruitful struggle finds few parallels in world history. This struggle for Muslim independence could have ended in failure had it been led by a person of lesser vision. Quaid-e-Azam fought for the division of India into Pakistan and Hindustan, a vision that entailed freedom for both the Hindu and Muslim nations, and he emerged victorious.”Pakistan is a state deliberately established not on economic, linguistic, or racial grounds, but on the basis of religious unity.”

He founded a new country based on the idea that Muslims of British India required a separate nation in which they could freely practice their religion, develop their culture, and shape their society without the burden of Hindu majority’s social and cultural influence. Throughout history, despite living in close proximity to Hindus, Muslims managed to maintain their distinct identity primarily due to their historical experiences of Muslim rule in South Asia.History encompasses the significant events occurring worldwide, and the history of South Asia is replete with momentous occurrences, with the emergence of Pakistan standing as a paramount milestone. After immense sacrifices, the long-cherished aspiration of millions of Indian subcontinent Muslims became a reality under the extraordinary and unprecedented leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. On August 14, 1947, the Muslim state of Pakistan came into existence.Islamic ideology serves as the philosophical foundation of the Two Nations theory. Pakistan is a state founded on ideological principles rather than territorial considerations. The Two Nations theory became a reality through the distinct ideology of Pakistan. The ideology of Pakistan is not only the cause of the country’s creation but also the driving force behind its existence and the destiny of its people.

Those who reject the Two Nations theory and oppose Islamization are not friends or well-wishers of the country. AllamaIqbal, a champion of the Muslim cause, deserves immense gratitude. His interpretation of Islam in its true essence, his message of “back to the Quran,” his accurate diagnosis of the ills afflicting Muslim India, and his suggested remedies completed the political revival of the Muslim community in India. The banner of Pakistan ideology, passed on by AllamaIqbal, was carried forward and fulfilled by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who not only staunchly believed in and supported the Two Nations theory but also founded the ideological state of Pakistan. He single-handedly fought against foreign rulers and the Indian Congress, remaining steadfast with wholehearted support from his colleagues and Indian Muslims. The great Quaid unequivocally declared to the world: “By a separate homeland, I mean a country where the Muslims of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent can shape their lives according to the principles of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.”If we desire to promote Pakistan ideology and transform it into a true stronghold of Islam, let us work together unitedly and act wholeheartedly upon the Quaid’s resounding call: faith, unity, and discipline. Let us vow to demonstrate through actions, not mere words. Let us earnestly strive for an Islamic way of life, both on an individual and national level. Let us wage a battle against the forces of evil, social injustice, bribery, corruption in public life, poverty, and ignorance. If we wish to safeguard our hard-earned freedom, we must firmly hold onto Allah’s guidance. Our sole hope of survival lies in faithfully implementing the Pakistan ideology. When people uphold their ideology, that ideology can, in turn, preserve and safeguard the people.

At the end, I thank to Respected Sir Dr. Muhammad Akram Zaheer for his valuable source of guidance. He generously shared his time and knowledge, providing me with valuable feedback and constructive criticism that has significantly improved the quality of my work. His patience, encouragement, and willingness to engage in meaningful discussions have been truly inspiring.